It takes the form of a dialogue between Yajnavalkya and Gargi, a famend philosopher. The text incorporates 12 chapters and its origin has been traced to the period between the second century BCE and fourth century CE. Many yoga texts just like the Hatha Yoga Pradipika, the Yoga Kundalini and the Yoga Tattva Upanishads have borrowed verses from or make frequent references to the Yoga Yajnavalkya. The Yoga Yajnavalkya discusses eight yoga Asanas – Swastika, Gomukha, Padma, Vira, Simha, Bhadra, Mukta and Mayura, numerous breathing exercises for physique cleansing, and meditation. During the period between the Mauryan and the Gupta eras (c. 200 BCE–500 CE) the Indic traditions of Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism were taking type and coherent systems of yoga began to emerge. This period witnessed many new texts from these traditions discussing and systematically compiling yoga strategies and practices.
Its epistemology and metaphysics is just like that of the Sāṅkhya faculty. The metaphysics of Classical Yoga, like Sāṅkhya, is principally dualistic, positing that there are two distinct realities. Each individual has a person puruṣa, which is their true self, the witness and the enjoyer, and that which is liberated. This metaphysical system holds that puruṣas endure cycles of reincarnation via its interplay and identification with prakirti. Liberation, the goal of this technique, results from the isolation of puruṣa from prakirti, and is achieved through a meditation which detaches oneself from the totally different forms of prakirti. This is done by stilling one’s thought waves and resting in pure consciousness of puruṣa. The tantra yoga practices embrace asanas and breathing workout routines.
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Regarding yoga or meditation, the Brahma sutras focuses on gaining spiritual information of Brahman, the unchanging absolute actuality or Self. The early follow of Jain yoga seems to have been divided into a number of sorts, including meditation (dhyāna), abandonment of the body (kāyotsarga), contemplation (anuprekṣā), and reflection (bhāvanā). Some of the earliest sources for Jain yoga are the Uttarādhyayana-sūtra, the Āvaśyaka-sūtra, the Sthananga Sutra (c. 2nd century BCE). Later works embody Kundakunda’s Vārassa-aṇuvekkhā (“Twelve Contemplations”, c. 1st century BCE to 1st century CE), Haribhadra’s Yogadṛṣṭisamuccya and the Yogaśāstra of Hemachandra . Later forms of Jain yoga adopted Hindu influences, such as ideas from Patanjali’s yoga and later Tantric yoga . The Jains also developed a progressive path to liberation by way of yogic praxis, outlining several ranges of virtue known as gunasthanas. Classical yoga incorporates epistemology, metaphysics, ethical practices, systematic workouts and self-growth strategies for body, thoughts and spirit.
Vedanta is a various tradition with numerous sub-schools and philosophical views. Vedanta focuses on the study of the Upanishads, and one of its early texts, the Brahma sutras.
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In a recent evaluate of 23 research in individuals with depressive signs , yoga was helpful in lowering symptoms in 14 of the research. A 2018 evaluate of 8 research of yoga for anxiety found evidence that yoga might have quick-term advantages in reducing the depth of hysteria. However, when only people with recognized nervousness disorders have been included in the evaluation, no beneficial effects of yoga were found. In a latest review of 14 studies that assessed the consequences of yoga on positive aspects of mental health, 10 studies found evidence of advantages, similar to enhancements in resilience or general psychological nicely-being.
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The Nyingma custom practices Yantra yoga (Tib. “Trul khor”), a self-discipline that features breath work , meditative contemplation and different exercises. In the Nyingma custom, the path of meditation follow is split into additional phases, such as Kriya yoga, Upa yoga, Yoga yana, Mahā yoga, Anu yoga and Ati yoga. The Sarma traditions also embrace Kriya, Upa (known as “Charya”), and Yoga, with the Anuttara yoga class substituting for Mahayoga and Atiyoga. During the Gupta interval , a movement of northern Mahāyāna Buddhism termed Yogācāra began to be systematized with the writings of the Buddhist scholars Asanga and Vasubandhu. Yogācāra Buddhism obtained the name as it provided a “yoga,” a scientific framework for partaking within the practices that lead by way of the path of the bodhisattva in direction of awakening and full Buddhahood. According to Mallinson and Singleton, the examine of Yogācāra Buddhism is essential for the understanding of yoga’s early historical past, and its teachings influenced the textual content of the Pātañjalayogaśāstra. The Yoga Yajnavalkya is a classical treatise on yoga attributed to the Vedic sage Yajnavalkya.
Some key works of this period include the Yoga Sūtras of Patañjali, the Yoga-Yājñavalkya, the Yogācārabhūmi-Śāstra and the Visuddhimagga. Onesicritus also mentions his colleague Calanus making an attempt to satisfy them, who is initially denied viewers, however later invited as a result of he was despatched by a “king curious of wisdom and philosophy”.